The lateral strain can then be defined.(13.38) One important parameter relating the vertical and horizontal strains is Poissons ratio.(13.39) The minus sign is attached because the signs of the deformations are opposite for the horizontal.
Attenuation peaks will also depend on specific rock characteristics.
Most of the observed losses are caused by relative motion of fluid in the pore space.
The G ( ) in turn depends directly on dry rock properties: the normalized modulus and porosity.Fluid mobility also influences rock inelastic properties.13.44 Normalized compressional and shear velocities for cracked rocks ( V rock / V mineral) both dry and saturated using the Kunster-Toksoz 82 method (from Cheng and Toksoz 83 ).Many of these assumptions may not be valid for hydrocarbon reservoirs, and they depend on rock and fluid properties and in-situ conditions.13.25 (a) General bounds of a porous material made of quartz, both dry and saturated with water (HS Hasin-Shtrikman).Figures such.36 demonstrate that the V p, V s, and V p / V s ratio will all be strongly dependent on the exact stress tensor at depth.
Squirt flow is believed to be the primary loss mechanism in consolidated rocks, although the inertial Biot mechanism may be important in highly permeable rocks (Vo-Thant, 99 Yamamato.
These results indicate that the dominant 1/ Q mechanism is the interaction and motion of fluid in the rock frame rather than intrinsic losses either in the frame or the fluids themselves.
The results of Katahara, 49 Wang., 50 and Prasad.
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The work of Brown and Korringa 75 provides an explicit form for an anisotropic fluid substitution.
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This is a function of coupling between P- and S-wave through the shear modulus and bulk density.Realizar simulaciones de vuelo hacia cualquier lugar.13.50 Extensional (or Youngs modulus) attenuation (1/ Qe ) as a function of water saturation (a) and frequency (b) for Berea sandstone.For tight, hard rocks, this loss can be negligible.The primary controlling factor rheem power vent 42vp50fw manual for these elliptical fractures is the aspect ratio, defined as the ratio of the ellipse semiminor ( a ) to semimajor ( b ) axes:.(13.91) The smaller the value of, the softer the crack and cracked rock, resulting in lower velocities.