Because pharmacological pain relief is not available at home, only spontaneous vaginal deliveries in hospital settings were included.
The measurement of labour pain by visual analogue scales is common practice in research on childbirth and has been honeywell programmable thermostat manual rth7400 found to be reliable.
Since the total population of pregnant women could not be determined, we had to rely on a convenience sample.However, Noord-Brabant, our sampling area, is likely to be a good representative of the Dutch maternity care model.Thus, on both ends of the continua (pain acceptance and control over pain relief Dutch women are about six times less likely than Belgians to receive pain medication.We know from the descriptives that Dutch and Belgian women reported the same level of pain acceptance, while Belgians scored significantly higher than the Dutch on personal control in pain relief.At 30 weeks of pregnancy, 827 women filled out the antenatal questionnaire; 611 of those women also participated in the study during the first 2 weeks after delivery and completed the second questionnaire.
The three research questions and variables included in this investigation are represented in figure.
In this main effect model only pain acceptance has a significant influence on pain medication use (pain acceptance:.4440.311,0.634; personal control:.1870.997-1.413).
Dutch women showed a greater acceptance of labour pain compared to Americans in Senden's study 18 : nearly two thirds of the Dutch women laboured without pain medication, compared to one-sixth of the Americans.For example in 2003 the Flemish induction rate was 30 and the percentage of caesarean sections was.3 53, versus.8 and.8, respectively, in the Netherlands.Anonymity was guaranteed, since the researchers have no information about the identity of the respondent.Women who delivered in a hospital completed the postnatal questionnaire during their postpartum stay in the maternity ward.The Flemish figures are comparable to the numbers in Brussels, brother pe 770 owners manual where the section rate was.6 and the induction rate.8.As data collection was not carried out simultaneously in each hospital or midwifery practice, 1 year was necessary to gather all the data (September 2004 - September 2005).In Belgium the use of epidural analgesia has doubled since 1991, from 32.6 in 2007 48,.The first research question (RQ1) addressed in this paper is whether acceptance of labour pain and personal control in pain relief determine the way childbearing women cope with labour pain.Five to 8 months elapsed from invitation to participate to completion of the last questionnaire.Pain medication use in Belgium hospital maternity care is high and very sensitive to negative attitudes towards labour pain.In the Netherlands, approval from a research Ethics committee is not required if no interventions take place during the research.Both items were coded in the same direction and merged into one scale by averaging the scores on both items.Also the co-occurrence of pain acceptance and personal control (OR.684.427,1,096 has no additional value.